Cellnique Paramedical Malaysia

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Skin Problems


Aka pigmentation, hyper-pigmentation, pigmentation disorder, uneven skin tone, dull skin tone, darken skin, dark spots, brown spots, age spots, sun spots, sun burn, liver spots, patches, freckles, melasma, lentigos, solar lentigines

Human skin has red, yellow, brown and blue tone; the skin tones result from combination of complex bio-molecules such as melanin (brown pigment), beta-carotene (yellow to orange pigment), hemoglobin (red pigment) and the condition of the skin.

The most prominent of which is melanin, produced by melanocytes under the stratum basale.  Some areas of the skin simply have less melanin than other areas. As the cells containing more melanin come in contact with prolonged period of sunlight, they become darker. Other areas with less melanin or that have less exposure to the sun, remain lighter. This gives the skin an appearance of an uneven skin tone, or even pigmentation.

This problem may further develop to:-

Skin Problem



• The over use of certain skin whitening or bleaching products and treatments may lead to sensitive and allergic skin.


Cellnique solutions on curing skin discoloration:-


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First trial

Derma Whitening Essence

The Expert Kit

Luminous Glowing Kit or Spots Illuminating Kit

Complete Solution

View our complete solution from cleanser, toner, serum, booster, moisturizer, sun protection, foundation and masque.


1. The whole process of melanin synthesis is known as melanogenesis.
2. Tyrosinase is a copper containing enzyme that catalyzes the production of melanin.
3. Pigmentation is more common amongst the middle aged women.
4. The more melanocytes there are in a person skin, the darker that person skin will be.
5. European has lesser amount of melanocytes in their skin and hence they have fairer skin tone and vice verse.
6. Melanin is produced to protect the skin against harmful ultraviolet rays. When melanocytes are damaged or over stimulated, they may begin to produce too much, or too little melanin.
7. Skin with too much melanin is called hyper-pigmentation – symptoms such as melasma, freckles, lentigenes, sun burn and etc
8. Skin with too little melanin is called hypo-pigmentation – symptoms such as skin looks pale, vitiligo and etc
9. Uneven skin tone normally happens on oily or combination skin where sebaceous glands produce excessive sebum, this causes dead skin cells tend to solidify and stick to the skin surface for longer than normal. This thick layer of dead skin cells contribute to a dull skin complexion.
10. There are few types of skin discoloration:-
  Nevus or “birth mark”
    The dark marks in various shapes and sizes, appearing at birth or soon after in shades of red and brown. Usually seen at birth but may also appear at a later age.
  Moles (medically known as pigmented naevi)
    The brown-to-blackish blemishes can be flat or raised, grow or disappear with age.
  Age Spots or Liver Spots or Sun Spots (technically known as lentigo or lentigines – plural)
    Shapes are small and sharply circumscribed. Normally appear on the face, chest, hands and other areas frequently exposed to the sun. The lesions are usually brown, but older lesions are often dark brown or brownish black.
  Melasma or chloasma spot
    Large area of dark, irregular patches, similar in appearance to age spot. Commonly found on the upper cheek, nose, lips, upper lip, and forehead. It may appear due to the consumption of birth control pills, menopause or pre-menopause.
  Freckles or ephelides
    Freckles are flat, tanned circular spots. Usually happened in people with fair complexion or has a lower concentration of melanocytes, found on areas like cheeks, nose, arms and upper shoulders.
    Patches are initially small in size, they can often start to enlarge and change shape. They are most prominent on the face, hands and wrists. It occurs when the melanocytes die or become unable to function.


1. Hormonal imbalance will result in over stimulation of melanin synthesis, and hence stimulate the melanocytes to produce too much or too little melanin. The higher or lower concentration of melanin leads to the discolored appearance.
2. Sun damage – situation when skin is repeatedly exposed to ultraviolet rays
  Ultraviolet or UV is divided into 3 sections according to their wavelengths from the sun to the Earth:-
    - UVC – shortest from the sun, usually does not reach the earth’s surface being absorbed by the ozone layer.
    - UVB – able to penetrate to the epidermis layer and stimulate the melanocytes to produce more melanin.
    - UVA – the strongest ray that able to shoot through the epidermis and disperse in the dermis layer,
      It accelerates the aging process by cracking and shrinking collagen and elastin, allowing the epidermis to start drooping or hanging off the body.
      Blood vessels become permanently dilated giving a constant red flush to the skin.
      The melanocytes can either die making a permanent white spot or become over active leaving a brown spot.
  Melanocytes response to both UVA and UVB in different mechanisms and result in skin discoloration.
  If UV rays exceed what can be blocked by the level of melanin, sunburn results.
3. Aging
  Thinning and weakening of the epidermis due to aging causes the skin to become more photo-sensitive (more sensitive with lights), resulting in overproduction of melanin and hyper-pigmentation.
  The aging process will slow down the process of sloughing off dead skin cells, dead skin cells tend to solidify and stick to the skin surface for longer than normal. This thick layer of dead skin cells contribute to a dull skin complexion or an uneven skin tone.
  As we age, the accumulative sun damage and the genetic-determined changes in human skin structure will affect the number of melanocytes leading to skin blotchiness or age spots.
4. Excessive sebum
  When sebaceous glands produce excessive sebum, dead skin cells tend to solidify and stick to the skin surface for longer than normal. This thick layer of dead skin cells contributes to an uneven skin tone.
  When exfoliation is not done, the patches stick for so long that the surface skin hardens and cracks. Over times, these cracks go deeper and deeper into the dermis, causing permanent scarring.
5. Improper skin care routine
  The use of makeup products consist of mercury or certain chemical substances that cause skin photosensitivity
  Poor exfoliation will allow an accumulation of dead skin cells which worsen the excessive sebum secretion


1. Proper skin care routine
  To prevent skin discoloration, the obvious solution lies in protecting your skin from the sun and regular exfoliation in removing all dead skin cells.



1. Deep cleansing 

Always remember to use a makeup remover to thoroughly remove all makeup

Use a face wash designed for oily skin and pat dry the skin gently without vigorous rubbing. Avoid over drying cleanser with SLS (sodium laurel sulfate)

2. Serum, moisturizer and masque 

Always looks for products that help whiten or lighten skin; inhibit tyrosinase and melanogenesis; and eliminate undesirable uneven blotches of dead skin cells. Active ingredients that you might take into consideration are Licorice extract, Bearberry, Idebenone, Vitamin C, Alpha arbutin, Kojic acid, multivitamins, AHAs, BHA, retinoids, and etc.

• Extra cautious on ingredients and treatment such as Hydroquinone or skin bleaching which may cause skin irritation.

3. Exfoliation

Gentle exfoliation helps remove dead skin cells and eliminate undesirable uneven blotches already present. AHAs, BHA, Retinoid all work to reveal the clear skin hidden underneath. 

4. Sun Protection

Choose a broad spectrum sun protection with physical blockers, such as titanium dioxide and zinc dioxide. Look for SPF level of 30 and PA+++ for optimum protection (full spectrum or board spectrum)

5. Makeup

Keep makeup as light as possible and use makeup only when absolutely necessary. Always use an oil free foundation or makeup products. Though many products have a light SPF added, do not assume it will be enough to go out without daily sun protection as well.

2. Protect your skin from the sun!
  SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor, which is a measure of UVB protection. It relates to how long it takes for skin to get burnt by the sun UVB radiation. SPF15 means it will take 150 minutes to produce sunburn on a person who gets sun burn in 10 minutes.
  PA (Protection Grade of UVA) is usually used in Asia. There are 3 PA grades, PA+, PA++ and PA+++, with each additional plus (+) indicating a higher protection.
  The best sun protection is achieved by application 15 to 30 minutes before exposure, followed by one reapplication 15 to 30 minutes after the sun exposure begins. Further reapplication is only necessary after activities such as swimming, sweating, and rubbing.
  The rays of the sun are strongest between 10am to 4pm – If a person’s shadow is shorter than their actual height while standing, the risk of sunburn is much higher.
  Wear a hat with a brim and anti UV sunglasses can provide almost 99% protection against ultraviolet radiation.
3. Promote healthy lifestyle
  Consume foods with antioxidants properties (green tea, grape, blueberry, carrot etc) which can help in fighting of free radicals thus protecting the skin from UVA radiation.
  Maintain a healthy lifestyle such as regular exercise, stress management, quit smoking, control alcohol intakes, and get sufficient sleep!

Frequently Asked Questions

My neck shows fine lines or circular lines, can I use my face ant-aging products to treat them?

Of course! Many people neglect the neck area upon using skin care products. You should always apply your skin care products on the neck area as the neck indeed is the most pronounced area for fine lines.

Will consumption of coffee and tea darken the skin complexion?

Intake of those natural occurring pigments in the food will not change the skin tone or quantity of melanin in your skin, nor stimulate the synthesis of pigment melanin.

My skin discoloration appears suddenly, any ways to lighten it?

If any growth, mole, sore, or skin discoloration appears suddenly, or begins to change, it is advisable to see your dermatologist first to know the actual causing factors.

Who is likely to get solar lentigo?

Solar Lentigines, also called sun, age, or liver spots, are benign flat brown spots that look like large brown freckles. They appear on sun-exposed skin, such as the face or back of the hands. 90% of light skinned people over the age of 60 develop the condition. In general, those who are most likely to have solar lentigines are people who have a tendency to sunburn and tan little or not at all.

Any ways to prevent the formation of hyperpigmented marks?

UV rays are the main factors for dark skin tone and hyperpigmented marks as UV radiations will interrupt the functionality of skin cells. So it is important to limit UV exposure or apply sufficient layers of sunscreens with at least a SPF 30 to prevent excess UV exposure. To improve the skin discoloration or dark complexion, it is advisable to use skin brightening products in regular basis.

Who is likely to get vitiligo?

The condition affects nearly 2% of the population, typically striking those between the ages of 10 and 30, and is most prevalent among those with darker skin. The reason is unknown. Though many people report pigment loss shortly after severe sunburn, the cause is likely a combination of genetic, immunologic and neurogenic factors. There is no current cure for Vitiligo but treatment forms have improved over the years.

Cellnique complete skin care routine that helps in skin discoloration?

I would like to try one of your products first, please advice which one should I use?

For uneven skin tone, you may choose Derma Brightening Complex as double booster and skip the use of serum. For skin pigmentation, you may use Derma Whitening Essence. These two products have excellent results in skin whitening and lightening.

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